Female Infertility is health condition in which a woman is unable to conceive even after trying for several times, at least for 1 year. For a woman who is more than 35 years of age, being unable to get pregnant after trying for 6 months can be an indicator of infertility. If miscarriages are quite frequent, it is a sign of infertility, as well. There can be a number of reasons for this condition like physical problems, age, lifestyle, hormonal issues and environment factors.

What are the causes of female infertility?

Here are some of the most common causes of female infertility. Read on!

  • Hormonal issues – A woman might not get pregnant because her body might not be going through the required hormonal changes that propels the ovum from the ovary and helps in thickening of the endometrium.

  • Issues with the fallopian tube – Fallopian tubes carry the eggs or ovum from the ovaries to the uterus. Any kind of damage or obstruction in the tube can stop the sperm from fertilizing the egg, leading to infertility.

  • Cervical problems – There are some women who have issues in their cervical canal that prevents the sperm from getting through the canal.

  • Uterine issues – Fibroids and polyps can also restrict a woman from conceiving.

  • Unexplained female infertility – In around 20 percent of the couples suffering from infertility issues, the exact reasons are not known.

How female infertility is diagnosed?

If you are not able to conceive for a considerable period of time, your doctor might order certain tests that include the following –

    • Urine and blood examination to determine the hormonal levels

    • Urine exams to determine the surges of LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

    • Pap test to evaluate the cervix

    • Endometrial biopsy to evaluate the endometrium

    • Test to check out the BBT (Basal Body Temperature)

    • Ultrasound

    • Post-coital examination

Some of the other tests ordered are –

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) – This diagnostic test involves X-ray imaging or ultrasound of the reproductive organs. During HSG, a medical professional injects contrast material or saline as well as air inside your cervix which makes its way through the fallopian tubes. It helps the doctor to find out if or not there is a blockage(s) in the fallopian tube.

Laparoscopy – During this process, a tiny camera equipped slender tube is inserted through a small incision made near the navel. It helps the doctors to view the outer area of the reproductive organs including the fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries. This procedure also helps to find out whether the tubes are blocked or not.

How is female infertility treated?

Treatment for infertility depends on certain factors like the reason, your age, for how long you have been trying, your personal choices, etc. Moreover, the treatments either target on restoring fertility or assisting in reproduction.

  • Fertility restoration using medicines - Fertility drugs include - Clomiphene citrate, Gonadotropins, Letrozole, Metformin, Bromocriptine.

  • Fertility restoration via surgery - Surgical procedures help correcting the problems with your reproductive organs. It includes - hysteroscopic surgery, tubal surgeries, tubal ligation reversal.

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) – It comprises the following approaches –

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) – In this procedure, millions of sperms (healthy) are put inside the womb when the time of ovulation is near.

  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) – It is considered to be one of the most effective ART. It is a combination of different procedures that includes – Stimulating the maturation of egg, retrieval of egg, fertilization of egg in a lab and embryo transfer into the uterus. A cycle of IFV can be several weeks long and needs frequent blood examinations as well as daily injections of hormone.

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Tamil Nadu, India.

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