Endoscopic surgery uses scopes which is passed through small incisions or natural body openings like nasal cavity, anus etc in order to diagnose and treat any particular disease.
The objective of doing endoscopic surgery is to reduce the tissue trauma and also the injury caused to the body by the traditional method of surgery. Research and studies have found that there is a decreased stress response in the patients undergoing endoscopic surgery as compared to the traditional surgery. In Endoscopic surgery, multiple activities such as blood sampling, radiography, ultrasonography, and endoscopy are done at the same time.
During an upper endoscopy, an endoscope is easily passed through the mouth and throat and into the esophagus, allowing the doctor to view the esophagus, stomach, and upper part of the small intestine.
Similarly, endoscopes can be passed into the large intestine, through the rectum to examine this area of the intestine. This procedure is called sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy depending on how far up the colon is examined.
Endoscopy may also be used to treat a digestive tract problem. For example, the endoscope might not only detect active bleeding from an ulcer, but devices can be passed through the endoscope that can stop the bleeding. In the colon, polyps can be removed through the scope to prevent the development of colon cancer.Also, using ERCP, gallstones that have passed outside the gallbladder and into the bile duct can often be removed.
Risks of Endoscopic surgery
Endoscopy is a safe procedure and when performed by a physician with specialized training in these procedures, the complications are extremely rare. They may include localized irritation of the vein where the medication was administered, reaction to the medication or sedatives used, complications from pre-existing heart, lung, or liver disease, bleeding may occur at the site of a biopsy or removal of a polyp (which if it occurs is almost always minor and rarely requires transfusions or surgery). Major complications such as perforation (punching a hole through the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) are rare but usually require surgical repair.