Ambiguous genitalia is a term denoted to conditions where an infant's external genital organs neither resemble male or female parts.
In Female Infants:
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a condition that causes the adrenal glands to produce more male hormones (androgens)
Prenatal Exposure to Male Hormones: When a pregnant mother is exposed to excessive male hormones through drugs or hormonal imbalance.
Tumors: tumors seen in the mothers can sometimes secrete the male hormone
In Male Infants:
Impaired Testicle Development due to genetic abnormalities or other unknown causes
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: When the male organ does not respond to androgen synthesized.
Abnormalities with the Testes or Testosterone
Enzyme Deficiency: 5a-reductase deficiency.
An enlarged clitoris, that appear as a small penis
Closed labia, or folds in the labia that look like a scrotum
Lumps in the fused labia that resemble testes
Hypospadias: Where the tube that carries the urine and the sperm doesn’t extend to the tip of the urethra (opening)
Short penis with opening that is closer to the scrotum
The absence of the testicles in the scrotum
Testicles that are undescended, with an empty scrotum, and a labia that is with or without a micropenis
Treatment can be determined only after the underlying cause of the condition is identified. In cases of suppressed hormonal problems seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hormonal therapy is advised. Besides this, there are procedures that involve gender re-assignment that can be performed based on parents and doctors views on the matter, but the choice made by the parent may be contradictory to the brain imprint that has already been designed at conception. There are a few surgical procedures called, feminizing genitoplasty and includes vaginoplasty and clitoroplasty. Gender reassignment may be considered in patients with 46,XY DSD and genital inadequacy. In Undervirilized males, they generally have hypospadias requiring surgical reconstruction. Surgery is performed between the ages of 6 and 18 months
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